Phytoestrogens In Functional Foods

Free Phytoestrogens In Functional Foods PDF download ebook

The phenolics or polyphenols include a wide range of plant secondary metabolic substances possessing in common an aromatic ring with one or more hydroxyl groups; these compounds, located in the vacuole, tend to be watersoluble, as they occur in combined forms with sugars as heterosides. Polyphenols are major bioactives found in fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, seeds, nuts, herbs, spices, chocolate, and beverages such as tea, coffee, or wine. They possess antioxidant, phytoestrogenic, antiproliferative, and enzyme-modulating activities in the human metabolic system. Scientific studies from different disciplines strongly suggest a role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. The pace of the polyphenol research has increased rapidly over the past 6 years. However, clinical and epidemiological evidence on their protective effects is still limited, and optimal levels and forms of intake have not been established. Furthermore, some questions about their safety have also been raised. This is especially important in view of the growing number of new food products specifically designed as sources of polyphenols. Phytoestrogens include flavonoids (isoflavones, coumestans, prenyl flavonoids) and nonflavonoids (lignans, stilbenes, phytosterols, saponins, resorcyclic acid), which are all polyphenolic compounds. Phytoestrogens represent one of many important bioactive nonnutrients found in many plants commonly consumed in human diet. Knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is fundamental for the planning of human nutrition. Qualitative and quantitative data are essential when this information is applied to prevent and control diseases for individuals and populations. Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring chemicals of plant origin that possess weak estrogenic properties due to their structural similarities to the human hormone estradiol. Bearing a structural resemblance to 17β-estradiol, they can interfere in vivo with mechanisms controlled by the hormone through competition for its receptors. They bind the estrogen receptor and exert hormonal and antihormonal effects. In addition, phytoestrogens may be important antioxidants. They perturb the action of DNA topoisomerase II and ribosomal S6 kinase, which could explain their observed effects on cell cycle, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Moreover, genistein is a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. It has been proposed that through such mechanisms phytoestrogens protect against a wide range of ailments, including breast, prostate, bowel, and other cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Of the flavonoids group of phytoestrogens, coumestan and isoflavone classes possess the greatest estrogenic DK3329_C000.fm Page vii Friday, August 5, 2005 8:13 AM © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC activity. Since coumestans are found predominantly in clover and alfalfa plants and so are rarer components of the human diet, genistein, which has been reported to have the most potent anticarcinogenic and estrogenic effect among isoflavones, attracts a great deal of interest in current studies. Despite a large amount of research, the role of phytoestrogens in human health and diseases has not been defined. Epidemiological evidence and experimental data from animal studies are not conclusive; beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on human health are suggestive, but the clinical data to support such effects are not widely available. There is a need for large-scale clinical studies. There has been an attempt to bring together key information from many fields developed over the last 20 years. But controversial subjects, single case reports or single research results, and commercial documents have been omitted from the main text of the chapters. The objective of this book is to introduce, organize, and document the scientific, technical, and practical aspects involved with the production, consumption, and safety of phytoestrogens in foods. This volume is designed to serve as a reference book for students, researchers, government officials, and manufacturers of baby foods, functional foods, and dietary supplements. On the other hand, this book will be a good reference book for food chemistry, nutrition, therapeutic nutrition, pharmacology, pediatrics, obstetric, gynecology, biochemistry, and toxicology graduate and undergraduate courses. The contributors to this volume have been very carefully selected from all over the world of science for their distinguishing publications in this field. This book is an attempt to integrate all aspects of phytoestrogen research in one volume in a concise manner, something that is not currently available in any other book. If I have been able to summarize the current knowledge and stimulate further research, I think we will all feel successful. I thank all of the contributors to this volume and all the individuals who helped make this timely book a reality. I especially wish to thank Anita Lekhwani, Erika Dery, and Susan Lee B. for their assistance during the preparation of this book.

Phytoestrogens In Functional Foods

Phytoestrogens In Functional Foods

Part I Production

1 Introduction to Phytoestrogens…………………………………………….. 3

E. Gültekin and Fatih Yildiz

2 Biosynthesis of Polyphenol Phytoestrogens in Plants…………. 19

G. Dinelli, A. Bonetti, S. Elementi, L.F.D’Antuono, and P. Catizone

3 Chemistry and Mechanism of Action of Phytoestrogens …….. 81

Rakesh Kumar Rishi

Part II Consumption

4 Pharmacokinetics of Phytoestrogens …………………………………… 99

Devarakonda R. Krishna and Masuram Somashekhar

5 Phytoestrogens in Cell Signaling ……………………………………… 123

Ozgur Kutuk and Huveyda Basaga

6 Phytoestrogens and Body Composition …………………………….. 153

V. Di Mattei, L. Scalfi, and F. Branca Part III Risk and Benefit Analysis

7 Reproductive Hormones in Females and Hormone Replacement Therapy ……………………………………………………….. 169

Ayhan Karakoç and Metin Arslan

8 Benefits and Risks of Phytoestrogens ……………………………….. 209

Bensu Karahalil DK3329_C000.fm Page v Friday, August 5, 2005 8:13 AM © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Part IV Optimization and Utilization

9 Soy Isoflavones and Health ………………………………………………. 243 Xing-Gang Zhuo, Koko Taku, Melissa K. Melby, and Shaw Watanabe Part V Applications

10 Wine Antioxidants/Phytoestrogens……………………………………. 265 Stamatina Kallithraka Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations in Phytoestrogen Research……………………………………………………………. 291

Polyphenol phytoestrogens – bioactives found in specific foods and beverages – impart antioxidant, phytoestrogenic, antiproliferative, and enzyme modulating activities within the human metabolic system. It is believed that these compounds protect against several forms of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. While there has been a rise in polyphenol research over the past few years resulting from this discovery, there has not been a thorough, single source guide that synthesizes and explains the attained information – until now. Phytoestrogens in Functional Foods comprehensively details the scientific, technical, and practical aspects involved in the production, consumption, and safety of phytoestrogens in foods.

The book is divided into five parts for easy reference. Section I, Production, introduces the topic of phytoestrogens and addresses the biosynthesis of polyphenol phytoestrogens in plants, and the chemistry and mechanism of action of phytoestrogens. Section II, Consumption, explains pharmacokinetics, body composition, and cell signaling. Section III, Risk and Benefit Analysis, examines reproductive hormones in females, hormone replacement therapy, and the benefits and risks associated with phytoestrogens. Section IV, Optimization and Utilization, discusses soy isoflavones and health, while Section V, Applications, explains wine antioxidants and phytoestrogens. While extensive investigation of these topics has led to many conflicting reports about their risks and benefits, this text provides answers and insight on the major questions regarding the core areas of polyphenol research.

Download Phytoestrogens In Functional Foods PDF Full

List Price:

$275.00 USD

New From:

$194.00 USD

Download Ebook pdf

Get it $10 USD

Payments secured by Paypal
Refund when you don't received ebook
Send fastest ebook in 24 hours
Customer requirements document sent to mail: Ducvatgia68@gmail.com
Payment
Your Email Address:

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *