Handbook of Visual Optics, Two-Volume Set PDF Download

Handbook of Visual Optics, Two-Volume Set PDF Download
by Pablo Artal (Editor)

Handbook of Visual Optics offers an authoritative overview of encyclopedic knowledge in the field of physiological optics. It builds from fundamental concepts to the science and technology of instruments and practical procedures of vision correction, integrating expert knowledge from physics, medicine, biology, psychology, and engineering. The chapters comprehensively cover all aspects of modern study and practice, from optical principles and optics of the eye and retina to novel ophthalmic tools for imaging and visual testing, devices and techniques for visual correction, and the relationship between ocular optics and visual perception.

Handbook of Visual Optics, Two-Volume Set PDF Download

Handbook of Visual Optics, Two-Volume Set 2017 PDF Download

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For many years, first as a student and later as a senior researcher in the area of physiological optics, I have wanted a comprehensive resource for frequently arising questions. Although the situation in today’s Internet era is different than before, still I believe there is need for a reliable single source of encyclopedic knowledge. Finally, the dream of my youth—a handbook in visual optics—is a reality and in your hands (or on your screen). I hope this will help interested readers for a long time to come.At the beginning of this adventure of compiling the handbook, I wanted to accomplish a number of goals (probably, too many!). Among others, I wanted to provide general useful information for beginners, or for those approaching the field from other disciplines, and the latest research presented from the most recent experiments in laboratories. As with most activities in life, success depends on the quality of individuals involved. In this regard, I was tremendously fortunate to have such an exceptional group of contributors. If we can apply the optical equivalence, this handbook is the result of a coherent superpositionof exceptional expertise.
This handbook builds from the fundamentals to the current state of the art of the field of visual optics. The eye as an optical instrument plays a limiting role in the quality of our vision. A better understanding of the optics of the eye is required both for ophthalmic instrumentation and vision correction. The handbook covers the physics and engineering of instruments together with procedures to correct the ocular optics and its impact on visual perception. The field of physiological, or visual, optics is a classic area in science, an arena where many new practical technologies have been tested and perfected. Many of the most brilliant scientists in history were interested in the eye. Based in well-established physical and physiological principles, the area was described as nearly completed in the second part of the twentieth century. However, from the 1980s onward, a tremendous new interest in this field appeared. This was driven in part by new technology, such as lasers and electronic cameras, which allowed the introduction of new instrumentation. For example, the use 
of wave-front sensors and adaptive optics concepts on the eye completely changed the field. In relatively few years, these ideas expanded to the clinical areas of ophthalmology and optometry. Today, research in new aspects of vision correction and instruments is extremely active, with many groups working on it around the world. This area is a mixture of fundamentals and applications, and is at the crossroad of many disciplines: physics, medicine, biology, psychology, and engineering. I tried to find an equilibrium among the different approaches and sensibilities to serve all tastes. This book can be accessed sequentially, but also by individual parts whenever a particular topic is required.
The handbook is organized in two volumes, with five total parts. Volume One begins with an introductory part that gives an exceptional appetizer by two giants of the field: Gerald Westheimer presents an historical account of the field, and David Williams explores the near past and the future. Part II covers background and fundamental information on optical principles, ocular anatomy and physiology, and the eye and ophthalmic instruments. Each chapter is self-contained but oriented to provide the proper background for the rest of the handbook. Basic optics is covered by Schwiegerling (geometrical optics), Malacara (wave optics), and Sasián (aberrations). The concepts of photometry and colorimetry are summarized in Chapter 6 (Ohno). The basics and limits of the generation of visual stimuli are described in Chapter 7 (Farrell et al.). Furlan provides a complete revision on the main ophthalmic instruments, and Dainty an introduction on adaptive optics. While the first chapters of this part are devoted to the more technical aspects, the three next chapters 
have a different orientation to provide the physiological basis for the eye and the visual system. Choh and Sivak describe the anatomy and embryology of the eye in Chapter 10. Freed reviews the retina, and Winawer the architecture of the visual system. In the final chapter in this part, Pelli and Solomon describe psychophysical methods. Part II sets the foundation for the various principles that follow in the rest of the handbook.
Part III covers the current state of the art on the understanding of the optics of the eye and the retina. Collins et al. and Manns describe, respectively, what we know today about the optical properties of the cornea and the lens. Atchison reviews in Chapters 16 and 17 the different schematics eyes and the definitions and implications of the axes and angles in ocular optics. 
The optics of the retina is detailed in Chapter 18 (Vohnsen). Once the different components are evaluated, the next chapters concentrate on the impact of optical quality. Refractive errors (Wilson) and monochromatic (Marcos et al.) aberrations are described. Although traditionally most attention has been paid to optical characteristics of the eye in the fovea, the important role of peripheral optics is described in Chapter 21 (Lundström and Rosén). Tabernero describes personalized eye models in Chapter 22. Beyond refractive errors and aberrations, scattering in the eye affects image quality. van den Berg exhaustively reviews the state of the art of the impact and measurements of this phenomenon (Chapter 23). The eye in young subjects has the ability to focus objects placed at different distances efficiently. Bharadwaj provides a review of the accommodative mechanism (Chapter 24), and Winn and Gray describe its dynamics (Chapter 25). The eyes are continually moving to place the fovea on the area of interest. This dynamic behavior has important implications described in Chapter 26 (Anderson). Although the human eye is very robust, serving us over many years, aging obviously affects its optics. In Chapter 27, Charman reviews how the eye changes with age. Several species are able to detect the state of polarization of light. Although our visual system is not capable of something similar, polarization plays a role in optical properties as described in Chapter 28 (Bueno).Volume Two focuses on the important topics of instrumentation and vision correction. Part I is dedicated to novel ophthalmic instrumentation for imaging, including the anterior segment and the retina, and for visual testing. An introductory chapter is dedicated to reviewing the concepts of light safety (Barat). Molebny presents a complete description of different wavefront sensors and aberrometers in Chapter 2. Hitzenberger reviews the principle Preface viiiof low-coherence interferometry (Chapter 3). This was the basis for one of the most successful techniques in ophthalmology: optical coherence tomography (OCT). Grulkowski concentrates on the current state of the art in OCT applied to the anterior segment (Chapter 4). Popovic (Chapter 5) and Doble (Chapter 6) present how adaptive optics implemented in ophthalmoscopes has changed the field in recent years. A different application of adaptive optics is its use for visual testing. Fernandez (Chapter 7) shows the history, present, and future potential of this technology. Imaging of the ocular media using multiphoton microscopy is a recent scientific frontier. Jester (Chapter 8) and Hunter (Chapter 9) cover, respectively, the applications of this emerging technology for the cornea and the retina.
Part II describes the different devices and techniques for surgical and nonsurgical visual correction procedures, from traditional to futuristic approaches. Ophthalmic lenses are still the most widely (Chapter 10) presents a complete overview of this topic. Contact lenses are described in depth in Chapter 11 (Cox). The specific case of correcting highly aberrated eyes is addressed in Chapter 12 (Marsack and Applegate). A particularly relevant type of correcting devices is intraocular lenses (IOLs),implanted to substitute the crystalline lens after cataract surgery. Two emerging types of IOLs, accommodating and adjustable, are reported in Chapters 13 (Findl and Himschall) and 14 (Sandstedt). Chapter 15 (Alio and El Bahrawy) presents a review of refractive surgical approaches for the cornea. The potential for nonlinear manipulation of the ocular tissues may open the door to new reversible future treatments. Chapter 17 (van de Pol) presents the state of the art of using corneal onlays and inlays for vision correction.
Part III reviews the relationship between the ocular optics and visual perception. Aspects related to optical visual metrics (Chapter 18, Guirao) and the prediction of visual acuity (Chapter 19, Navarro) are included. Adaptation is a key element in vision and may have significant clinical implications. 
Chapters 20 (Webster and Marcos) and 21 (Shaeffel) describe adaptation to blur and contrast. Visual functions change with age. A description of these characteristics is a useful resource for those interested in any practical application. Chapter 22 (Wood) reviews age-related aspects of vision. Finally, 
Chapter 23 (Jimenez) explores the impact of the eye’s optics in stereovision.I thank the many people who contributed to this handbook: of course, all the authors for providing accurate and up-to-date chapters; Carmen Martinez for helping me with secretarial work, and Luna Han from Taylor & Francis Group for her guidance and patience. I am also indebted to the financial help received by my lab, which allowed dedication to this endeavor: the European Research Council, the Spanish Ministry of Science, and the Fundacion Seneca, Murcia region, Spain


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