Download A Practical Guide to Handling Laser Diode Beams 2015 PDF

Download A Practical Guide to Handling Laser Diode Beams 2015 [PDF]
by Haiyin Sun (Author)

This book offers the reader a practical guide to the control and characterization of laser diode beams. Laser diodes are the most widely used lasers, accounting for 50% of the global laser market. Correct handling of laser diode beams is the key to the successful use of laser diodes, and this requires an in-depth understanding of their unique properties.

Following a short introduction to the working principles of laser diodes, the book describes the basics of laser diode beams and beam propagation, including Zemax modeling of a Gaussian beam propagating through a lens. The core of the book is concerned with laser diode beam manipulations: collimating and focusing, circularization and astigmatism correction, coupling into a single mode optical fiber, diffractive optics and beam shaping, and manipulation of multi transverse mode beams. The final chapter of the book covers beam characterization methods, describing the measurement of spatial and spectral properties, including wavelength and linewidth measurement techniques.

The book is a significantly revised and expanded version of the title Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations by the same author. New topics introduced in this volume include: laser diode types and working principles, non-paraxial Gaussian beam, Zemax modeling, numerical analysis of a laser diode beam, spectral property characterization methods, and power and energy characterization techniques. The book approaches the subject in a practical way with mathematical content kept to the minimum level required, making the book a convenient reference for laser diode users.

Download A Practical Guide to Handling Laser Diode Beams 2015 PDF

1 Laser Diode Basics……………………………… 1
1.1 Laser Diode Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Homojunction Laser Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 Gain-Guided Laser Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.3 Index-Guided Laser Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.4 Quantum Well and Multi-quantum-Well
Laser Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.5 Intersubband and Interband Quantum
Cascade Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.6 DFB and DBR Laser Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.7 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser
Diodes (VCSEL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.1.8 Other Terminologies Often Used to Categorize
Laser Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2 Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.1 Lasing Threshold Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2.2 Laser Diode Materials and Gain Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 Spectral Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3.1 Longitudinal Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3.2 Mode Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3.3 Mode Hopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3.4 Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.5 Linewidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4.1 Continuous Wave Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4.2 Modulated or Pulsed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.5 Temperature Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.6 Electrical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.6.1 Internal Circuit for DC Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.6.2 Series Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6.3 Intrinsic Circuit for Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
ix
1.7 Main Failure Mechanism and How to Protect Laser Diodes . . . . . 20
1.8 Laser Diode Mechanical Properties, Packages, and Modules . . . . 20
1.8.1 Mechanical Tolerance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.8.2 Laser Diode Packages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.8.3 Laser Diode Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.9 Vendors and Distributors of Laser Diodes, Laser
Diode Modules and Laser Diode Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.9.1 Laser Diode Vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.9.2 Laser Diode Module Vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.9.3 Laser Diode Optics Vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2 Laser Diode Beam Basics…………………………. 27
2.1 Single Transverse Mode Laser Diode Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1.1 Elliptical Beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1.2 Large Divergences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.1.3 Quasi-Gaussian Intensity Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.1.4 Astigmatism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.1.5 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2 Multi-transverse Mode Laser Diode Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2.1 Wide Stripe Laser Diode Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2.2 Laser Diode Stack Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.3 Laser Diode Beam Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3.1 Basic Mode Paraxial Gaussian Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3.2 M
2
Factor Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.3.3 Thin Lens Equation for a Real Laser Beam. . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3.4 Non-paraxial Gaussian Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.3.5 Raytracing Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4 Zemax Modeling of a Gaussian Beam Propagating
Through a Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.4.1 Collimating a Gaussian Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.4.2 Focusing a Gaussian Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3 Laser Diode Beam Manipulations……………………. 53
3.1 Collimating and Focusing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.1.1 Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.1.2 Beam Shape Evolvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.1.3 Beam Quality Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.1.4 Collimation or Focusing a Laser Diode
Beam, Graphical Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
x Contents
3.1.5 A Numerical Example of Collimating and Focusing
a Laser Diode Beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.1.6 Deliver a Smallest Beam Spot to a Long Distance . . . . . . 65
3.1.7 Laser Line Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.2 Numerical Analysis of the Propagation, Collimation,
and Focusing of a Laser Diode Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.2.1 Propagation of a Nonparaxial Laser Diode Beam . . . . . . . 71
3.2.2 Collimating a Nonparaxial Laser Diode Beam . . . . . . . . . 73
3.2.3 Tightly Focusing an Astigmatic Laser Diode Beam
to a Small Spot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
3.3 Beam Circularization and Astigmatism Correction . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.3.1 Using Two Cylindrical Lenses to Collimate
and Circularize an Elliptical Beam and to Correct
the Astigmatism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.3.2 Using an Anamorphic Prism Pair and a Circular
Aperture to Circularize the Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.3.3 Using a Weak Cylindrical Lens to Correct
the Astigmatism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.3.4 Using a Special Cylindrical Micro Lens
to Circularize an Elliptical Beam and to
Correct the Astigmatism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.3.5 Using a Single Mode Optic Fiber to Circularize
an Elliptical Beam and Correct the Astigmatism . . . . . . . 88
3.4 Coupling a Single Mode Laser Diode Beam into
a Single Mode Optic Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.5 Aperture Beam Truncation Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.6 Diffractive Optics and Beam Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.6.1 Diffractive Optics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.6.2 Shape a Single TE Mode Laser Diode Beam . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.7 Effects of External Optical Feedback on Laser Diodes . . . . . . . . 94
3.7.1 Accidental External Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.7.2 Intentional External Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.8 Multitransverse Mode Laser Diode Beam Manipulation. . . . . . . . 98
3.8.1 Collimating a Wide-Stripe Laser Diode Beam . . . . . . . . . 98
3.8.2 Focusing a Wide-Stripe Laser Diode Beam . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.8.3 Collimating or Focusing a Laser Diode Stack Beam . . . . . 100
3.8.4 Wide-Stripe Laser Diode Beam Shape Evolvement. . . . . . 100
3.8.5 Laser Diode Stack Beam Shape Evolvement . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.8.6 Coupling a Multitransverse Mode Laser
Diode Beam into a Multimode Optic Fiber Array. . . . . . . 102
3.8.7 Shape a Wide-Stripe Laser Diode Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Contents xi
4 Laser Diode Beam Characterization………………….. 105
4.1 Spatial Property Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
4.1.1 Beam Size and Shape Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.1.2 Locate the Beam Waist and Measure the M
2
Factor . . . . . 107
4.1.3 Beam Far Field Divergence Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
4.1.4 Astigmatism Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.2 Spectral Property Characterization: Wavelength
Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.2.1 Fizeau Wavemeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.2.2 Michelson Interferometer Wavemeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.2.3 Lab Wavelength Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.2.4 Algorithm for Calculating the Periods
of Interference Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.3 Spectral Property Characterization: Linewidth Measurement. . . . . 123
4.3.1 Diffraction Gratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.3.2 Monochromators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.3.3 Scanning Fabry–Perot Interferometers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.3.4 Lab Setup for Linewidth Measurement:
Glass Flat Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.4 Power and Energy Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.4.1 Commonly Used Sensor Heads of Laser
Power Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.4.2 Integration Spheres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

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