Common Neurosurgical Conditions in the Pediatric Practice: Recognition and Management

Common Neurosurgical Conditions in the Pediatric Practice: Recognition and Management

This unique title is designed to illustrate and foster how a closer working relationship between pediatricians and subspecialists can make childhood medicine work more seamlessly. Despite the common lack of training for pediatricians in pediatric neurosurgery, they are challenged almost daily with caring for children with neurologic conditions. Common Neurological Conditions in the Pediatric Practice is replete with a wide range of instructional case vignettes and is organized into sections that loosely approximate the neurologic development of a child and address issues that are commonly encountered. The first section reviews neurologic development and birth related trauma commonly seen in the neonatal intensive care unit. The second part addresses findings commonly encountered by a pediatrician in a child’s first month of life. The third section is a comprehensive review of hydrocephalus. Part four describes state of the art imaging techniques for the central nervous system in children, from pre-natal ultrasound through MRI and CT; and the fifth part consists of individual explorations of common neurosurgical conditions that many pediatricians are uncomfortable managing, including brain tumors, spasticity, and vascular lesions to use as a reference tool when caring for a complex neurosurgical patient. Finally a series of chapters related to head trauma, including sections on non-accidental trauma and concussion management, completes the text.

Common Neurosurgical Conditions in the Pediatric Practice: Recognition and Management

Part I Development of the Brain and Spine

1 Normal Development of the Skull and Brain ………………………. 3

Waleed A. Azab

2 The Neurologic Exam in Neonates and Toddlers …………………. 11

Alison S. May and Sotirios T. Keros Part II Newborn Through Infancy

3 Birth Trauma to the Scalp and Skull ………………………………….. 27

Babacar Cisse , Ibrahim Hussain , Jeffrey P. Greenfi eld, and Caroline B. Long

4 Brachial Plexus Injuries During Birth ………………………………… 35

Peter F. Morgenstern

5 Neonatal Brain Injury ……………………………………………………….. 47

Anil Sindhurakar and Jason B. Carmel

6 Evaluation of Head Shape in the Pediatric Practice: Plagiocephaly vs. Craniosynostosis …………………………………….. 61 Charlotte A. Beam , G. Rene Alvarez Berastegui , and Jeffrey P. Greenfi eld

7 Neurocutaneous Disorders …………………………………………………. 71

Kaleb H. Yohay and Matthew McCarthy 8 Cutaneous Markers of Spinal Dysraphism ………………………….. 93

Assem M. Abdel-Latif

9 Tethered Cord ……………………………………………………………………. 101

María Teresa Alvarado Torres

10 Lumps and Bumps: Scalp and Skull Lesions ………………………. 107

Nelson Moussazadeh and Matei A. Banu x Part III Hydrocephalus Primer

11 Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Premature Infant ……….. 125

Jeffrey M. Perlman

12 Neuro-Ophthalmic Presentation of Neurosurgical Disease in Children ………………………………………………………………………… 137

Dara M. West and Marc Dinkin

13 Hydrocephalus and Ventriculomegaly ………………………………… 163

Assem M. Abdel-Latif and Jeffrey P. Greenfi eld

14 Neurosurgical Considerations in Macrocephaly ………………….. 177

Imithri D. Bodhinayake and Heather J. McCrea

15 Evaluation and Classification of Pediatric Headache …………… 189

Zuhal Ergonul Part IV Imaging of the Pediatric Brain and Spine

16 Imaging of the Fetal Brain and Spine …………………………………. 201

Soniya N. Pinto , Stephen T. Chasen , and Linda A. Heier 17 Prenatal Counseling for Fetal Diagnoses …………………………….. 233 Stephen T. Chasen

18 Imaging of the Pediatric Brain …………………………………………… 243

Hediyeh Baradaran and Apostolos John Tsiouris

19 Radiographic Evaluation of Suspected Scoliosis ………………….. 269

Cathleen L. Raggio

20 Image Gently: Minimizing Radiation Exposure in Children ………………………………………………………………………… 279

Linda A. Heier and Soniya N. Pinto Part V Beyond Hydrocephalus: What Pediatric Neurosurgeons Treat Most

21 Chiari Malformation………………………………………………………….. 301

Konstantinos Margetis and Jeffrey P. Greenfi eld

22 Pediatric Brain Tumors ……………………………………………………… 321

Vita Stagno and Assem M. Abdel-Latif

23 Pediatric Neurovascular Disease ………………………………………… 331

Benjamin I. Rapoport , Scott W. Connors , and Caitlin E. Hoffman

24 Pediatric Seizures ………………………………………………………………. 355

Alison S. May and Juliann M. Paolicchi

25 Approach to Spasticity in the Pediatric Patient …………………… 369

Neil Haranhalli and Rick Abbott Contents xi

26 Assessment and Management of Minor Head Injuries in Toddlers and Adolescents ……………………………………………….. 377 David Kimball and Jeffrey P. Greenfi eld

27 Non-accidental Head Trauma …………………………………………….. 387

Lara M. Gordon

28 A Pediatrician’s Guide to Concussion Management ……………. 399

Kenneth R. Perrine , Emilie A. George , and Katie Shayna Davis 29 Pathophysiology and Diagnosis of Concussion …………………….. 413

Baxter B. Allen Index ………………………………………………………………………………………… 433

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